For military application, there's probably some decent advantages to full metal jacket, especially as it pertains to cover. But, yeah, modern bullet technology is really something else.
Really refined the gap between calibers in a lot of ways, at least for self defense. For military, cover and penetration become more important, but, in more civil uses, you want to limit penetration. Thanks to bullet development, most anything is actually effective, though you're not necessarily going to have the same direct energy. But, expansions can often enough be the same.And like I said, you want penetration down enough.
Here's one of my favorite sites on this particular subject. It's really quite interesting stuff. They don't seem to track the energy, though. Bit of a shame, but it might not matter that muchhttps://www.luckygunner.com/labs/pocket-pistol-caliber-gel-test-results/